Military strength of various Muslim dynasties of India

In the Sultanate period, the army consisted mainly of cavalry, elephant corps and infantry. The cavalry was, however, the main source of strength. Khilji Sultans According to Tarikh-e-Firuz Shahi, Jalauddin Khilji maintained 70,000 horses. Alauddin Khilji was the first Sultan to introduce the principle of Standing Army for the Sultan. That army was recruited, equipped … Read more

Barozai Afghans of Sibi

The members of Barozai clan (a sub-tribe of Pannis) of Sibi claim descent from Baru Khan who they say was a 15th century figure. Towards the close of 16th century, Sibi came under the rule of Mughals. The latter introduced Nawabi into the Panni tribe. In the second half of 17th century we see the … Read more

Pashtun soldiers of Sultan Balban’s army

Ghyas-ud-din Balban of the Turk-Mamluk dynasty had a large number of Pashtun soldiers in his service. In 1260 Balban, then Vizier, brought areas known as Kohpaya-Bharatpur, Dholpur and parts of what became Jaipur and Lawar, under the sword with the help of a body of Afghans, who penetrated every where in defiles and ravines, a … Read more

Mirza Aziz Koka acknowledged the achievements of Sher Shah Sur

Mirza Aziz Koka, foster-brother and childhood playmate of Mughal emperor Akbar, praised Sher Shah Sur in a 1611’s letter written to Emperor Jahangir as follow; “Sher Shah Afghan, who was not a ‘malak’ (angel) but a ‘malik’ (king), established such a stable government that his memory is still alive. He turned Hindustan into a garden … Read more

History of the Khattak tribe

The south-east of Peshawur, from Naushera to the Indus, by Attock round the Akora Hills to Kohat, and the whole south and east of the Kohat district, is held by the Khattaks, one of the finest tribes on our whole frontier, but located almost entirely within, rather than across, the Border. Their original home was … Read more

Pashtuns of Kashmir valley in 1895

According to “The Valley of Kashmir” By Walter R. Lawrence (written in 1895 AD), Pashtuns in Kashmir were more numerous than Mughals in the late 19th century Kashmir and were mostly found in Uttar Machipura (Kupwara district, Kashmir). The most interesting colony of Pashtuns was that of the Kuki Khel Afridis of Dranghaihama, who retained … Read more

Third Battle of Panipat (1761)

By Khan Barmazid Strength of the two armies Muhammad Jafar Shamlu , who was present at Panipat , is the most reliable and accurate source. He was in the camp of Shah Pasand Khan who formed the vanguard division of the army and Ahmad Shah’s paiks and harkaras (couriers and messengers) were under him . … Read more

Nehru in Waziristan (1946)

In 1946 Nehru visited NWFP. When Nehru arrived at Peshawar Airport, he was greeted by a large and hostile Muslim league demonstration. He had to be taken out through a back door. Nehru then visited Tribal areas.[1] The first town in tribal territory on Nehru’s itinerary was Miranshah, where he was to address a Jirga. … Read more

Haji Sahib of Turangzai

Haji Sahib of Turangzai (whose real name was Fazal Wahid) (b. 1858 d. December 14, 1937) was a Pashtun freedom fighter and social worker in the late 19th century and early 20th century.Haji Sahib, who defeated the British forces at Karapa, was a follower of Sheikhul Hind Maulana Mahmoodul Hasan, a prominent scholar of Darul … Read more

Hindus of Bannu

The Hindus were much equally scattered throughout all parts of the district except the Waziri tracts, in which there were very few. Of the 30,000 in the district in 1877-78, fully two-thirds were engaged in trade, the rest gained a living as agriculturists in different villages. The majority had been Aroras (Kirars), the rest being … Read more