Pashto was spoken in Rampur as late as 1815 | Rohillas

Pashto was spoken in Rampur region of Uttar Pradesh as late as 1815 AD. This was reported by Mountsuart Elphinstone in his book “the account of kingdom of Cabul” which was published in 1815. Elphinstone had visited Afghanistan in 1808 as ambassdor of British East India Company and met Shah Shuja Durrani in Peshawar. He … Read more

The flag of Ahmad Shah Durrani

When you google “the flag of Ahmad Shah Durrani”, this black triangular flag pops up. It is fake.   Iranica Encyclopaedia says:  “Almost nothing is known about the flags of Afghanistan during the reign of the Sadōzay dynasty and the early decades of the Moḥammadzay dynasty. Traditionally, nonstandard flags of different colors were used in … Read more

Ibrahim Khan Gardi (an Afghan mercenary in the service of Marathas)

A scene from an Indian tv series. Ibrahim Khan Gardi is portrayed as a ‘patriotic’ Indian Muslim with unwavering loyalty to Marathas and his ‘country’.  In reality, the mercenary was ready to join Ahmad Shah Abdali after he was captured. According to an eyewitness account (Kashiraj), when the captured Ibrahim Khan Gardi was presented before … Read more

The royal seal of Ahmad Shah Durrani

On the seal-ring of Ahmad Shah Durrani was engraved the phrase:  “الحکم لله، یا هو، یا فتاح، احمد شاه در درّانی”  (“Judgment is God’s, O Conqueror—Ahmad Shah, Durr-i Durrani”)  He had the great seal made in the shape of a peacock’s fan, round and elongated like a flask, and it was used on all decrees … Read more

When Ahmad Shah Durrani wiped out a large army of Sikhs in 1762 | “Vadda Ghallughara”

The image of Ahmad Shah Durrani is largely shaped and dominated by 20th century Indian writings. Indian writers portrayed the Sikh misls as dauntless heroes and Ahmad Shah Abdali as a hideous villain. One of the historical events that they have distorted, is a battle referred to as “Vadda Ghallughara” by Sikhs. The Indian editors … Read more

Ahmad Shah Abdali about Marathas in a letter to Raja Madho Singh

In a letter Ahmad Shah Abdali to in a letter written to Raja Madho Singh (the ruler of Jaipur), Ahmad Shah Durrani reveals very important information. He informs Madho Singh that on the day of the battle of Panipat, Marathas came out with 200,000 (two lakh) cavalry and foot besides artillery and a force of … Read more

Census of Wazir and Mahsud tribes in 18th century

Screenshot from “A concise history of Afghanistan” by Wahid Hamid Alikuzai, p-291 Its a local myth that Ahmad Shah Abdali conducted census of Wazir and Mahsud tribes. They were not part of his empire so number of their fighting men did not need to be estimated. Syed Ghulam Muhammad surveyed Waziristan during the reign of … Read more

The rise and fall of the Abdali state of Herat in early 18th century

The Abdali historical tradition (recorded in early 19th century) relates that a grand jirga of Abdali clans around Kandahar was held in 1589 AD. To get rid of the feuds between the various clans of Abdali, they decided that the entire tribe should have one malik as had been the case when the tribe dwelt … Read more

Ahmad Shah Abdali did not cover his face with a bejeweled mask in 1761: response to William Dalrymple

In his fresh book William Dalrymple is making a claim that Ahmad Shah Abdali’s face was getting eaten away by disease from “early on in his reign” [while I have read that he suffered from the disease in the last years of his reign]. He further says that his nose was already consumed by the … Read more