Darya Khan Daudzai

Darya Khan Daudzai was a horse trader from a village near Peshawar who later joined Mughal service and became a high ranking Mughal mansabdar. In 1630 he joined the rebellion of Khan Jahan Lodi for the restoration of Pashtun rule in India. Their efforts did not meet with success and they suffered defeats at the … Read more

Hindu Shahi rulers of Kabul and Gandhara were Brahmans

The Arab geographer Al-Masudi (896-956) writes that from “Al-Qandahar” comes one of the five rivers which forms the Mihran (Indus river). The Al-Qandahar of Al-Masudi was most likely Gandhara region (Peshawar valley and surroundings), not the modern Kandahar (which is referred to as “Rukhaj” or “Rakhaj” الرخج by Masudi and other Arabs). There is no … Read more

Ahmad Shah Abdali about Marathas in a letter to Raja Madho Singh

In a letter Ahmad Shah Abdali to in a letter written to Raja Madho Singh (the ruler of Jaipur), Ahmad Shah Durrani reveals very important information. He informs Madho Singh that on the day of the battle of Panipat, Marathas came out with 200,000 (two lakh) cavalry and foot besides artillery and a force of … Read more

Shah Tahmasp’s advice to Humayun on Pashtuns and Rajputs

Tahmasp I (1514 – 1576) was an influential Shah of Iran of the Safavid dynasty. After getting defeated by Sher Shah Sur, Humayun sought refuge with Shah Tahmasp. Zakhirat-ul-Khawanin (Eng.trans, Vol-I, pp-103-104) records an interesting conversation that took place between Humayun and Shah Tahmasp: Shah Tahmasp: “Among Indian which class commands the obedience of big … Read more

The perilous and painful march of Man Singh Kachwaha through Khyber Pass

In 1586 Mohmands and other Ghoria-Khels acknowledged Jalala (son of Pir Roshan) as their leader and rose in revolt against Mughals. They invested the Bala Hissar of Peshawar. Sayyid Hamid, who was faujdar of Peshawar, sallied forth from the fort and engaged in combat with Ghoria Khels but he got killed.  Raja Man Singh, the celebrated general … Read more

An account of a 16th century battle between Afghans and Rajputs

Numbers of the Parni tribe (of Pashtuns) migrated at an early period into India, where, from time to time, they have made a considerable figure; some during the time of Lodi sovereigns of Delhi, Sultan Bahlul, being the first Pashtun or Afghan who acquired sovereignty therein, and who, when surrounded by foes , and before … Read more