Jamrud fort of Mughals times

The existing Jamrud fort was built by Hari Singh Nalwa in December 1836 who had named it Fatehgarh. English explorer William Moorcraft who visited Jamrud in 1824 before the construction of the Sikh fort, noted ruins of a building there. He writes:   “The plain terminated at the foot of the Khyber range. It appeared to … Read more

Khushal Khan Khattak Shaheed, Gakhars and Marathas

A relatively unknown episode of the Panipat war (1758-1761) containing the account of Khushal Khan Khattak Shaheed (the one who got martyred) and the Gakhar vassals of Durrani empire when Punjab briefly became part of Maratha empire. In March 1758 Marathas, assisted by local Punjabis (Adina Beg and Sikhs) invaded Sirhind city of the Durrani … Read more

Malik Wali Khan Kuki Khel (Afridi) of the Pashtunistan movement

Malik Wali Khan Kuki Khel and his lashkar fought in the Kashmir war (1947-1948). Later he played a very active role in the Pashtunistan movement. In December 1952 Malik Wali Khan Kuki Khel, Malik Said Ahmad Zakha Khel and Maulvi Ghairat Gul of Jamiat Ulema-e Islam called a jirga of the Afridis, at Mamanri to … Read more

The real particulars of the so called ‘treaty of Kalat 1758’ between Mir Naseer Khan and Ahmad Shah Durrani

Treaty of Kalat 1758 with fake details No treaty on those terms in the following screenshot was signed between Mir Naseer Khan of Kalat and Ahmad Shah Durrani. The treaty with those particulars in the screenshot, is forgery by Baloch nationalists. An attempt has been made by them to pass off Kalat as a sovereign state, … Read more

Pashtuns in the armies of Sultan Shahabuddin Ghori and Prithviraj Chauhan (Rai Pithora)

According to Gulshan-i-Ibrahimi (written in 1612 AD), Afghans (Pashtuns) and Khaljis formed the vanguard of the army of Sultan Shahabuddin Ghori. The Pashtun and Khalji commanders of the vanguard (مقدمة الجیش), who always boasted of their valour and prowess, fled from the battlefield (along with the right and left wings of the army) in the … Read more

Reputation of Ahmad Shah Durrani in early 19th century

Ahmad Shah Durrani In 1839, James Rattrey (British soldier and artist) visited the tomb of Ahmad Shah Durrani in Kandahar, drew a painting of it and described him as follows : “The sovereign who sleeps there, called by the Afghauns “the faultless King,” was the greatest monarch their country ever produced. The people of every … Read more

Waris Shah has never referred to Ahmad Shah Durrani as ‘Kabuli dog’ in his poetry

Punjabi nationalists and Punjabi liberals on social media are often found saying that Waris Shah (a Punjabi poet of 18th century) has referred to his contemporary Ahmad Shah Durrani as a ‘rabid dog of Kabul’ or ‘Kabuli dog’ in his poetry. To ascertain the truth, I decided to research into the matter and read several … Read more

Ghulam Qadir Rohilla did not force the Mughal princesses to dance for him ; a blunder by Allama Iqbal

There is a poem of Allama Iqbal by name of “Ghulam Qadir Rohilla” in Banga-i-Dara, the English translation of which, done by Iqbalurdu blog, is given below: How cruel, tyrant and vindictive the Ruhilah was He blinded the Mughal Emperor with the point of his dagger The tyrant ordered members of the royal household to … Read more