Mirza Aziz Koka acknowledged the achievements of Sher Shah Sur

Mirza Aziz Koka, foster-brother and childhood playmate of Mughal emperor Akbar, praised Sher Shah Sur in a 1611’s letter written to Emperor Jahangir as follow; “Sher Shah Afghan, who was not a ‘malak’ (angel) but a ‘malik’ (king), established such a stable government that his memory is still alive. He turned Hindustan into a garden … Read more

History of the Khattak tribe

The south-east of Peshawur, from Naushera to the Indus, by Attock round the Akora Hills to Kohat, and the whole south and east of the Kohat district, is held by the Khattaks, one of the finest tribes on our whole frontier, but located almost entirely within, rather than across, the Border. Their original home was … Read more

Rohillas, the Indo-Afghans

Etymologically the word Roh is thought to be derived from the Sanskrit Rohitagiri ( ‘ Red Hill ‘ ). Panini , Sanskrit grammarian , who lived most probably in the fourth century B.C. , informs that Highlanders dwelt on the Rohitagiri. The word Rohitagiri assumed the terminology of Rohi with passage of time and was … Read more

Pashtuns of Kashmir valley in 1895

According to “The Valley of Kashmir” By Walter R. Lawrence (written in 1895 AD), Pashtuns in Kashmir were more numerous than Mughals in the late 19th century Kashmir and were mostly found in Uttar Machipura (Kupwara district, Kashmir). The most interesting colony of Pashtuns was that of the Kuki Khel Afridis of Dranghaihama, who retained … Read more